Lent is the forty days before Easter. Start at Easter, back up six Sundays, then back up a few more days to the Wednesday before, and you get to Ash Wednesday. That’s actually forty-six days. Back out the six Sundays, which are treated as “free days” and not counted as part of the Lenten season (they are and they aren’t–it’s complicated), and you get to forty days.
Lent is a season of preparation for Easter. We prepare by focusing on Christ and his journey to the Cross, which lies squarely across our path and looms ever larger the deeper we get into the Lenten season. The 40 days of Lent tie in directly with the 40 days Jesus spent in the wilderness prior to the start of his public ministry, and indirectly with the 40 years Israel spent in the wilderness prior to entering the Promised Land. Not all of us can go out into the wilderness for 40 days, but we can all place ourselves in a posture of humility and choose practices consistent with a lifestyle of repentance.
What we typically do around here during the Lenten season is pick a related topic and talk about it for five to six weeks. This year we have been coming around two questions: What is the Bible? And what is the Bible for?
Currently we are coming around the question: What is the Bible for? In order to guide our thinking on this question, we have been looking at insights from Pete Enns’ latest book “How the Bible Actually Works“. Enns is a Bible scholar and writer/blogger/podcaster whose passion is to make the Bible relatable to everyday believers. His unorthodox views on what the Bible is and what we ought to expect from it have generated no small amount of controversy over the years.
Last week we came around the idea that the Bible is a diverse book, like a conversation happening across the ages as the Hebrew people interact with their past and reinterpret it to speak into their struggles to come to grips with what God is up to in their present circumstances. God was guiding this process behind the scenes, and this is what Christians mean when they talk about the Bible as “inspired”.
But it is important to understand that God did not simply speak His words from heaven. Many evangelicals have a view of the inspiration of Scripture that would honestly be much more at home in Islam or Mormonism than in anything remotely resembling biblical Christianity. The Bible is a human book, the product of centuries of people wrestling with what God was doing in their midst. It evolved over the ages and did not reach its final form until after the Babylonian exile as priests and scribes edited it into something that would give hope to those returning from captivity as they struggled to put the pieces of their nation back together.
Enns zeroes in on Chronicles as an example of how this worked. In our English bibles, 1-2 Chronicles comes right after 1-2 Samuel and 1-2 Kings and represents another look at the same period of history with a slightly different emphasis. But in the Hebrew bible, 1-2 Chronicles comes at the very end.
Chronicles is not a repeat of 1 Samuel through 2 Kings. It is a retelling of those books from a much later point in Jewish history. In fact, it is nothing less than an act of reimaging God.
To make a long story short, 1 Samuel through 2 Kings were probably written before and during the Babylonian exile, and the main question these books address is, “How did we get into this mess? What did we do to deserve exile?” The short answer is, “You committed apostasy by worshiping foreign gods, with your kings leading the way.” In other words, these books interpret events of history and pronounce a guilty verdict on Judah.
But 1 and 2 Chronicles were written centuries later, probably no earlier than about 400 BCE and more likely closer to 300 or even a bit later—so somewhere in the middle of the Persian period (which began in 538) and perhaps as late as the Greek period (which began with the conquest by the Greeks under Alexander the Great in 332). And these books answer a different question altogether, not “What did we do to deserve this?” but “After all this time, is God still with us?”
Once again, we revisit our theme: as times changed, the ancient Jews had to reprocess what it meant to be the chosen people—if indeed that label even meant anything anymore.
Enns points to the example of Manasseh. Manasseh was one of the worst kings Judah ever had, and from the account in 1-2 Kings it was his sins and excesses that led to the Babylonian exile. The damage done to the kingdom during his reign was so great that even the revival and reforms that occurred under Josiah a couple of generations later could not undo it.
But in Chronicles the story of Manasseh is reimagined. Manasseh is led into exile and returns humbled, chastened, ending his days as a repentant, restored, and righteous ruler. These details were left out of the Kings account–because it was written earlier and to answer a different set of questions.
Why is this important? Because the story of Manasseh is, in microcosm, the story of Israel being led into exile, crying out to God in repentance, and then returning home to pick up the pieces.
The author of Chronicles wished for the exiles to learn the wisdom of repentance and seeking God in the midst of their hard circumstances. To this end he showed that even the most wicked sinner–Manasseh–was not incapable of repentance or beyond redemption and restoration.
That is to say, the retelling of the reign of Manasseh (and 1 and 2 Chronicles as a whole) is an act of wisdom—of reading the moment and reimagining what God is doing and, more important, what God will do in the (hopefully not too distant) future.